**Jules Henri PoincarĂ©** was a French mathematician and theoretical physicist, and a philosopher of science. PoincarĂ© is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as *The Last Universalist*, since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime.

As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. He was responsible for formulating the PoincarĂ© conjecture, one of the most famous problems in mathematics. In his research on the three-body problem, PoincarĂ© became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory. He is considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology.